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ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICAN
HISTORICAL TIMELINE DETAILS (1980 to 1989)

Our victories, obstacles and leaders


Discover additional specific info on the many links (outlined in "red" or "blue") listed below


1980
CORRECT DEFINITION APPROVED

National Convention of American Newspaper Guild decides to stop using the word "Jap."  

1980
JAPANESE ARE SWORN AS CITIZENS
 

1980
APA ORGANIZATION IS FORMED

National Conference of the Asian/Pacific American Educational Equity Project in Washington, D.C., to form national network of Asian and Pacific women's organizations.

1980
PHILIPPINE FESTIVAL

First Philippine Festival
of the Arts begins in New York City

MIS Timeline

May 1980
Defense Language Institute dedicates buildings to three MIS Nisei: Yukitaka "Terry" Mizutari, Frank Tadakazu Hachiya, and George Ichiro Nakamura. They are each awarded the Silver Star posthumously.

July 1981
Public hearings involving more than 750 witnesses take place in Washington, D.C. as part of an investigation of Japanese-American internment during World War II. Some consider this event as a turning point in the redress movement.

January 1983
Fred Korematsu, Minoru Yasui, and Gordon Hirabayashi file petitions to overturn their World War II convictions for violating curfew and evacuation orders.

October 1987
Smithsonian Institution opens "A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution." The special exhibit examines the constitutional process through the Japanese-American internment experience.

August 1988
U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs the Civil Liberties Act. The act recognizes that the internment of Japanese Americans was "motivated largely by prejudice, wartime hysteria, and a failure of political leadership." It provides for individual payments of $20,000 to each surviving internee and a $1.25 billion education fund.

November 1989
U.S. President George Bush signs into law an entitlement program so that redress payments can be automatically funded and all payments made by the end of 1993. Prior to this law, no money had been appropriated to make the payments.

October 1990
First redress money and a government apology are presented to the oldest recipient at a ceremony in Washington, D.C.

August 1994
U.S. President Bill Clinton signs the 5 million dollar Civil Liberties Public Education Fund. The program provides initial monies for the development of public education activities about the Japanese-American internment experience.

April 2000
U.S. military awards the Presidential Unit Citation to MIS members who served during World War II—more than 50 years after the war.

Click HERE to return to the beginning of the timeline
For MIS Background Info, Click HERE
MIS Timeline - January to December 1942
MIS Timeline - January -1943 to August 1944
MIS Timeline - September 1944 to August 1945
MIS Timeline - September 1945 to December 1947
MIS Timeline - June 1950 to September 1953
MIS Timeline - 1962 to Decembere 1969
MIS Timeline - March 1972 to 1978
MIS Timeline - May 1980 to April 2000
1981
 
US GOVERNMENT RECOGNIZE INTERNMENT INJUSTICE
 

1981
MAYA LIN DESIGNS THE VIETNAM VETERANS MEMORIAL
 

While still an architecture student at Yale University, Lin entered a national design competition for the proposed Vietnam Veterans Memorial to be built in Washington D.C. Her entry was selected from 1400 others when she was only 21 years old. The design featured two highly polished walls of black granite set in a "V" shape inscribed with the names of almost 58,000 dead or missing veterans of the Vietnam war. Lim's design was chosen from 1,420 entries.

The Vietnam veteran sponsors set four major criteria for the design. It must: (1) be reflective and contemplative in character, (2) harmonize with its surroundings, especially the neighboring national memorials, (3) contain the names of all who died or remain missing, and (4) make no political statement about the war.

Ms. Lin accomplished all of this. She created a park within a park - a quiet protected place that harmonized with the overall plan of Constitution Gardens. She chose polished black granite for the walls -- its mirror-like surface reflects the images of the surrounding trees, lawns, and monuments. The walls point to the Washington Monument and Lincoln Memorial to bring the memorial into historical context. The names are inscribed in chronological order from the date of casualty in order to present the war as a series of individual human sacrifices and give each name its own place in history. Ms. Lin describes the wall: "Walking into this grassy site contained by the walls of the memorial, we can barely make out the carved names upon the memorial's walls. These names, seemingly infinite in number, convey the sense of overwhelming numbers, while unifying these individuals into a whole."

1982 
CHOL SOO LEE IS ACQUITTED

After spending nine years in prison for a killing he did not commit, Korean immigrant
Chol Soo Lee was acquitted by a San Francisco jury.

Picture of Vincent Chin
1982
 
VINCENT CHIN IS KILLED!

A young draftsman named
Vincent Chin was attending his bachelor party at a suburban Detroit strip club called Fancy Pants. With the party well underway, Ronald Ebens, a white auto worker, began yelling racial slurs across the bar. "It's because of you little motherf*ckers that we're out of work," witnesses later remembered Ebens yelling at Chin.

Chin struck Ebens and a fight ensued. Ebens' stepson, Michael Nitz - who had been recently laid off from his job at an auto plant - jumped in. But it was soon broken up by a parking attendant. Chin and his friends left the bar and went their separate ways. Twenty minutes later, Ebens and Nitz caught up with Chin in front of a fast-food restaurant. Ebens grabbed a baseball bat and delivered a blow to Chin's leg. Nitz held the wounded Chin while Ebens struck his head with the bat, bashing in his skull.

IMPLICATIONS
In 1989, Jim Loo and his five friends were at a pool hall when two Caucasian men, Robert and Lloyd Piche, started assaulting and making racial slurs against them. The two men were brothers, who had lost a third brother in the Vietnam War, and had mistaken Loo as being Vietnamese.
the killing of Kao Kuan Chung in April of 1997. Kao was a Chinese-American killed in Rohnert Park by San Francisco police. Due to Kao being Chinese and holding a six-foot long wooden stick, Police Officer Jack Shields presumed him to be a martial arts expert and thus shot Kao to death.
Before he slipped into a coma, Chin murmured to a friend, "It's not fair." Four days later - and five days before his wedding - Chin died as a result of the injuries.

On May 9, 1983, "a multi-racial crowd of about 350 people rallied in downtown Detroit" and demanded that a circuit court judge review probationary sentences imposed on two men for the baseball bat slaying of a Chinese American last year." The ACJ organized this rally to show the support of the community in getting tougher sentences for Ebens and Nitz. Carl Sayers, an Episcopal priest, delivered the opening prayer to the hour-long rally saying, "It was a very clear miscarriage of justice. I am here because I want them to know that churches are with them." Following his opening speech more than a dozen speakers also spoke on behalf of Vincent Chin. A petition was then handed to a member of Judge Kauffman's staff at the Wayne County courthouse. This initial rally would be the first of many the ACJ would organize during the incident of Vincent Chin.

Two days later, Judge Kauffman was quoted, "The Asian community owes me some gratitude for bringing their community together under one cause." Despite his bitterness, Judge Kauffman was correct in his assessment that the protest of his lenient sentences in its unfairness did unite the Asian community.
After Judge Kauffman decided not to resentence Ebens and Nitz, the ACJ further went into action. It started to coordinate its efforts with groups outside of Detroit. The ACJ declared June 19-23 as "Days of Remembrance" for Vincent Chin and asked the Detroit City Council to approve a citywide declaration in Chin's memory. Across the nation in San Francisco, a rally in Portsmouth Square in Chinatown was held to commemorate the one-year anniversary of Chin's death. "More than 20 Asian American churches throughout the San Francisco Bay Area held memorial services Sunday in observance of Chin's death."

Asian Americans for Justice and the Chinese American Citizens Alliance were instrumental in this rally. Harold Fong, president of the local chapter of the Chinese American Citizens Alliance was quoted, "If the roles were reversed, and the victims were white and the murderers were Asian, I ask you, would the punishments be the same?" This quote was all over the papers and undoubtedly influential at rallying Asian communities to the cause of Vincent Chin. In Los Angeles, about 300 Asian Americans were joined by Mayor Tom Bradley at a City Hall rally "to demand justice for Chin." Branching out, the ACJ coordinated efforts nationally to have rallies to remember the death of Vincent Chin.

Ebens and Nitz were charged with and pleaded guilty to manslaughter. For this, they each received a sentence of three years probation and a $3,000 fine. Later, federal civil-rights cases brought against the two defendants were appealed, and the juries acquitted each of them. Neither served a jail sentence. For additional information, please visit our article on Vincent Chin by clicking HERE.

1982
NAAAP IS FORMED
 

The National Association of Asian American Professionals (NAAAP), is a non-profit 501(c)(3), all-volunteer organization whose mission is to promote the personal and professional development of the Asian American community.

1983
PETITONS TO OVERTURN WWII EVACUATION ORDERS

Fred Korematsu, Min Yasui, and Gordon Hirabayashi file petitions to overturn their World War II convictions for violating the curfew and evacuation orders.

On Nov. 10, 1983, Patel ruled from the bench in the ceremonial courtroom she had opened to accommodate the crowds. She exonerated Korematsu and lambasted the government, which she said had based its decisions on "unsubstantiated facts, distortions and the (opinions) of one military commander whose views were seriously tainted by racism."

In her written opinion the following spring, Patel said: "As a historical precedent, it stands as a constant caution that in times of war or declared military necessity, our institutions must be vigilant in protecting our constitutional guarantees...that in times of distress, the shield of military necessity and national security must not be used to protect governmental actions from close scrutiny and accountability."

The ruling helped win a presidential apology and monetary redress for former internees.

But Patel's decision didn't take Korematsu vs. United States off the books, where, as dissenting Justice Robert Jackson had written in the original case, the court's validation of military orders "...lies about like a loaded weapon."

1983 
KOREAN AMERICAN COALITION IS FORMED

The Korean American Coalition
(KAC) is a non-profit, non-partisan community advocacy organization. Established in 1983, KAC's mission is to facilitate the Korean American community's participation in civic, legislative, and community affairs, and encourage the Korean American community to contribute and become an integral part of the broader American society.

1983 
WAH MEE MASSACRE

The
Wah Mee massacre was an incident on February 18, 1983, in which Kwan Fai (Willie) Mak, Wai-Chiu (Tony) Ng, and Benjamin Ng gunned down 14 people in the Wah Mee gambling club on Maynard Alley S. just south of S. King Street in Seattle's Chinatown/International District ("the I.D."). Thirteen of their victims lost their lives, but one survived to testify against the three in some of Seattle's highest-profile trials ever. It remains the worst mass murder in the city's history, challenged only by the March 25, 2006, Capitol Hill massacre.

The Wah Mee club (exclusive gambling and social club with high security) operated illegally in a basement space in a predominantly Chinese neighborhood; despite some street drug dealing and a bit of prostitution, the area generally had a reputation for a low rate of violent crime. The club's regulars included many wealthy restaurant-owners, several of whom were among the victims. Security at the club was based in part on a system of passing through multiple successive doors, which had been used in similar International District gambling dens for generations, and had usually been quite effective. Mak and his accomplices defeated the system only because they were known and trusted by the people at the club. Their presumed intent was to leave no witnesses, since club patrons could readily identify them, as, in fact, the one survivor did.

Aftermath
On February 24, 1983 Benjamin Ng and Willie Mak were charged with 13 counts of aggravated first-degree murder. Wai-Chiu (Tony) Ng became the third suspect, charged in absentia on March 30, 1983 with 13 counts of aggravated first-degree murder. In August 1983 - Benjamin Ng was convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison. In October 1983, Willie Mak was convicted of murder and sentenced to die.

On June 15, 1984 - Tony Ng became the 387th Ten Most Wanted Fugitive to be listed by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation. He was arrested October 4, 1984 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Tony Ng was acquitted in April 1985 of murder, but convicted of 13 counts of first-degree robbery and a single count of assault with a deadly weapon. Each robbery charge brought a minimum sentence of five years, to be served consecutively. Under the state's old sentencing guidelines, as Ng completed sentences for each count, he began serving time for the next. In 2006 - Ng is now serving time for the next-to-last count and the state's Indeterminate Sentence Review Board is considering granting Ng parole, which would allow him to begin serving time for the final count. He could then be eligible for release from prison in 2010.

On February 17, 1987 - the Washington State Supreme Court issued a stay of execution a month before Willie Mak's scheduled execution, but on May 2, 1988 the state Supreme Court let Mak's murder conviction stand. However, then on November 10, 1988 Willie Mak's execution was delayed indefinitely by a federal judge. On January 8, 1991 U.S. District Judge William Dwyer overturned Willie Mak's death sentence, saying Mak's attorneys failed to present evidence on their client's background that could have saved his life. On July 16, 1992 The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals refused to reinstate Mak's death sentence. On November 9, 1994 a King County Superior Court judge denied Mak's bid for a new trial but allowed prosecutors to hold a new sentencing hearing.

On February 15, 2002, a King County Superior Court judge scheduled a sentencing hearing for September 2002. On April 29, 2002 a King County Superior Court judge (Judge Laura Inveen) ruled that Mak will not face the death penalty because the 1983 jury wasn't asked to determine how much of a role he had in the crime (i.e. A recent state Supreme Court ruling of December 2000 about aggravated-murder accomplices meant that he cannot be executed because the jurors weren’t asked whether two factors made the case a capital crime – killing in the course of a robbery and killing to conceal the robbers’ identities – along with deciding if Mak was a “major participant” in the murders.). On September 6, 2006, a parole board met to determine whether Tony Ng should receive parole on his 12th robbery term. If given parole, he would begin serving his 13th term, and be eligible for parole and potentially freed in 2010.

TIMELINE
Feb. 19, 1983 Thirteen people are shot to death by gunmen at the Wah Mee Club, a gambling club in Seattle's International District. One man survives. Benjamin Ng, 20, and Kwan Fai "Willie" Mak, 22, are arrested the following day.
Feb. 24, 1983 Ng and Mak are charged with 13 counts of aggravated first-degree murder
March 30, 1983 A third suspect, Wai-Chiu "Tony" Ng, 26, is charged in absentia with 13 counts of aggravated first-degree murder. Ng is arrested a year and a half later in Calgary
August 1983 Benjamin Ng is convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison
October 1983 Mak is convicted of murder and sentenced to die
April 1985 Tony Ng is acquitted of murder but convicted of 13 counts of first-degree robbery and is sentenced to seven consecutive life terms
Feb. 17, 1987 The Washington State Supreme Court issues a stay of execution a month before Mak's scheduled execution
May 2, 1988 The state Supreme Court lets Mak's murder conviction stand
Nov. 10, 1988 Mak's execution is delayed indefinitely by a federal judge
Jan. 8, 1991 U.S. District Judge William Dwyer overturns Mak's death sentence, saying Mak's attorneys failed to present evidence on their client's background that could have saved his life
July 16, 1992 The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals refuses to reinstate Mak's death sentence. The ruling entitles Mak to a new penalty hearing if King County prosecutors decide to seek another death sentence
Nov. 9, 1994 A King County Superior Court judge denies Mak's bid for a new trial but allows prosecutors to hold a new sentencing hearing
Feb. 15, 2002 A King County Superior Court judge schedules a sentencing hearing for September
April 29, 2002 A King County Superior Court judge rules that Mak will not face the death penalty because the 1983 jury wasn't asked to determine how much of a role he had in the crime
BACKGROUND OF WAH MEE CLUB
The Wah Mee Club was once a romantic, classy enclave where patrons -- the bulk of whom consisted of semi-affluent restaurant owners and businessmen and -women in the Chinese community -- danced to music played on a nickelodeon. It was a place where hard-working Chinese Americans spent their off-hours drinking and sharing stories. And it was undoubtedly a place where a lot of money changed hands because it was host to some of the highest-stakes gambling that could be found in Seattle and, for that matter, the entire Pacific Northwest. The exclusive, Chinese-only members of the Wah Mee Club were allowed to preserve an integral part of their culture -- gambling -- all the while profiting police officers on the side.

The more popular bottle clubs in Chinatown were the New Chinatown, Congo Club, Blue Rose, 411 Club, the Ubangi, and the Wah Mee. All were hot spots for dancing, music, gambling, and booze. Many of these clubs dated back to the early-1920s.

Entrepreneur and Asian legend Danny Woo owned the New Chinatown, located less than a block from the Wah Mee. In 1940 the Congo Club opened in Chinatown, at Maynard and Sixth Avenues. The Blue Rose, located near Chinatown, on Yesler Way and Thirteenth Avenue, was a small, two-room house that doubled as a club. The 411 Club was located on Maynard Avenue, around the corner from the Wah Mee and was a hot spot for some of the biggest names in jazz such as Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong. The Ubangi Club was a black-owned nightclub hosting some of the nation's best jazz performers where Cab Calloway played mainly to a white clientele. Another Chinatown club -- formally named the Hong Kong Chinese Society Club -- locals aptly nicknamed the Club the "Bucket of Blood" because of its recognition as a rowdy joint, as well as the locale of a grisly murder after a police raid.

In many of these Chinatown clubs -- the New Chinatown, Congo Club, Blue Rose, the 411 Club, the Ubangi, and the Wah Mee – patrons enjoyed booze, jazz, dancing, Opium dens, prostitutes, casinos, and the daily lottery. And the Tokiwa Hotel, located at Maynard Avenue South and South King Street, was a residential nexus for starving jazz musicians who played the Chinatown clubs.

In its early years, during the late-1920s, the Wah Mee Club was called the Blue Heaven. As its name implied, it was a place for dancing, drinking, gambling, and partying. The Wah Mee Club's roster of members had always been a "who's who" of the Asian community. The late John Okada, a Japanese American writer who wrote the classic novel No-No Boy, frequented the Club. His novel brilliantly explores the difficulties of a young Asian American trying to find his place in the United States. Okada based his novel's key gambling club on the Wah Mee -- a place he frequented during the 1940s. In No-No Boy, the Wah Mee is renamed "Club Oriental" and Okada's description of the Club is based on the Wah Mee. Okada died of a heart attack in 1971. Another Wah Mee notable, a pillar in Seattle's Chinese community, was domineering entrepreneur Ruby Chow. Ruby Chow was both praised and reviled. Chow opened the first Chinese restaurant outside of the Chinese community -- an area largely labeled African American. Her restaurant was popular with white customers, most of whom were opera fans and knew that Chow was married to Ping Chow, a celebrated opera singer and head cook at her restaurant.

1983
HATE CRIME VS. VIETNAMESE STUDENT!

Vietnamese high school student Thong Huynh is stabbed to death in Davis, Calif., by a white student after being taunted by a group of whites. The defendant, a minor, is convicted of manslaughter.

1984
FIRST PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE IN NYC'S CHINATOWN

Jesse Jackson becomes the 1st presidential candidate to visit New York City's Chinatown.  

1984 
FRED KOREMATSU

Judge June Patel vacates the conviction of
Fred Korematsu who challenged the Japanese American evacuation during WWII. In other words - In the Korematsu's case, the court hearing the coram nobis appeal found that in his original trial the government withheld and distorted evidence, leading to his conviction.

FYI - "CORAM NOBIS - In our presence; before us. The office of "writ of coram nobis" is to bring attention of court to, and obtain relief from errors of fact, such as a valid defense existing in facts of case, but which, without negligence on defendant's part, was not made, either through duress or fraud or excusable mistake, where facts did not appear on face of record, and were such as, if known in season, would have prevented rendition of the judgment questioned. The essence of coram nobis is that it is addressed to the very court which renders the judgment in which injustice is alleged to have been done, in contrast to appeals or review directed to another court; the words "coram nobis", meaning "our court," as compared to the common-law writ of coram vobis," meaning "your court," clearly point this up."

1985
ELLISON ONIZUKA: THE 1ST ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICAN ASTRONAUT
As an Air Force officer on detached duty with NASA, Onizuka was chosen to serve on the first dedicated Department of Defense classified space shuttle mission. He served as the mission specialist on STS-51-C from January 24-27, 1985 on the Discovery orbiter. The Challenger flight was his second Shuttle mission. He (along with Christa McAuliffe, Greg Jarvis, and Judy Resnik died on January 28, 1986 when NASA's Challenger exploded 1 min. 13 sec. after launch. It was the United States' first in-flight tragedy.

The STS-51L was the 25th mission of the Space Shuttle Program, and the tenth of Space Shuttle Orbiter Challenger. Challenger, and her crew of seven, was launched at 11:38am EST from Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Pad B. Approximately 73 seconds later, Challenger was destroyed as a result of aerodynamic stress, killing all onboard. The cause was rooted in the history of the Space Shuttle Program: The o-rings on the solid rocket boosters could not properly seal at cold temperatures.

Ellison Shoji Onizuka (June 24, 1946-January 28, 1986) was born and raised on Kona, Hawaii. He received a BS degree in Aeronautical Engineering in 1968 and a Masters Degree in 1969 from the University of Colorado. The following year, he joined the U.S. Air Force and became a flight engineer. Onizuka later attended the Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base in California and was a test pilot. He has flown over 1700 hours on 43 different aircraft.

In 1978, he was selected by NASA for the astronaut program in 1978. He has spent over 72 hours in space on two spaceflights. Onizuka became the first Asian-American in space aboard Mission 51-C in 1985. This was a Department of Defense mission. Onizuka was killed in the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger on January 28, 1986.

Out of the seven astronauts' families, Colonel Onizuka's widow, Lorna Onizuka, was the only survivor who did not file a lawsuit against Morton Thiokol, the company which built the solid rocket booster (the one that caused the explosion) for the death of her husband. Her explanation was short and simple when the press querried her motive. Her husband chose a career as a pilot. He piloted an experimental spacecraft (the Challenger) and he died in the line of duty. It was not Morton Thiokol's fault, in her opinion and she was sure her late husband would not want her to blame anyone. He chose to live by the sword and he proudly died by the sword.

1985 
MICHAEL WOO - 1ST AA MEMBER OF L.A. CITY COUNCIL
June 4, 1985: Michael Woo, the grandson of a Chinese laundryman, became the first Asian American member of the Los Angeles City Council, defeating Peggy Stevenson in the 13th District.

1985 
HAING NGOR WINS AN OSCAR
Haing S. Ngor wins an
Oscar for Best Supporting Actor in the film "The Killing Fields" for playing the role of Dith Pran, who tried to stop the holocaust in Cambodia.

1985 
CHARLES NG & LEONARD LAKE - SERIAL KILLERS
 

On June 2, 1985, an Asian man later identified as Charles Ng was seen shoplifting in San Francisco. He fled by the time police arrived, but Leonard Lake, who was with him, was arrested when his car was searched and found to contain a pistol that was illegally equipped with a silencer.

Charles Ng, with his buddy Leonard Lake, tortured, raped and murdered an unknown number of men, women and children at Lake's Wilseyville, California rural home that had been equipped with a fortified bunker which apparently was used solely as a holding cell for their victims.

Law enforcement authorities believe that up to twenty-five people were murdered by the pair, but only officially recovered twelve bodies. Detectives found videotapes of these two people torturing and sexually abusing their victims among the evidence found on the property.

In true "he-man" fashion, Ng ran away to Canada to avoid prosecution, and attempted to delay his trial proceedings when he was finally extradited back to the U.S. Convicted of eleven murders in 1999.

1985
IRENE NATIVIDAD - 1ST ASIAN PRESIDENT OF NATIONAL ORG.
 

Irene Natividad became the first Asian to be voted as president of a national political organization in the US - the National Women's Political Caucus (NWPC). She was also chosen as one of the "100 Most Powerful Women in America" by Ladies Home Journal. Her editorials have appeared in USA Today, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune and many other publications.

1986
1ST SURBURBAN CHINATOWN IN THE US
 

Monterey Park, a small city east of Los Angeles, is identified as the first suburban Chinatown in the U.S.. Center of activity for Chinese moves to San Gabriel Valley. It's the start of the immigration eastward of the Chinese communities as it starts in Monterey Park, proceeded to San Gabriel and has extended to areas such as City of Industry, West Covina, Hacienda Heights, Roland Heights and Puente Hills.

1986
FIRST MEETING WITH THE PRESIDENT
 

The first recorded meeting of a United States President with a national Asian American organization. The Asian American Voters Coalition met with President Reagan on January 9, 1986.

1986
PROTESTS IN BOSTON
 

1987 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AGREE TO REPARATIONS
 

1987
JAPANESE AMERICAN EXHIBIT AT THE SMITHSONIAN
The Japanese American Exhibit opened at the
Smithsonian National Museum of American History in Washington D.C.  

1987
PROTESTS VS SEGRATION
 

100 Latino and SE Asian parents protest against crowded, substandard schools, and sued for unconstitutional segregation and denial of equal education opportunity.

1987
IVY LEAGUE ASU FORMED
First Ivy League Asian American Studies program established at Cornell U, with $100,000 budget and staff of three.  

1987
ANTI-ASIAN HATE ATTACKS IN NEW JERSEY
 

South Asian Navroze Mody is murdered in Hoboken, N.J. by "dotbusters," as part of a series of organized hate attacks designed to drive South Asians out of the area.

1988
REPARATIONS FOR JAPANESE AMERICAN INTERNEES
 

On August 10, 1988 - the House Resolution 442 was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan. It provides for a payment of $20,000 to each surviving Japanese American internee and a $1.25 billion education fund, among other provisions. It sought to address the sense of betrayal felt by Japanese Americans when FDR signed Executive Order 9066 on February 19, 1942. It forced 110,000 Japanese Americans to liquidate their assets on 3-day notice and relocate to remote prison camps.

The campaign to seek reparations was begun on July 10, 1970 by the western branch of the Japanese American Citizen's League. The campaign's emotional turning point came when 750 Japanese American witnesses recounted their experiences before the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. The first $20,000 redress payments were made on October 9, 1990 to 107-year-old Mamoru Eto and eight other elderly survivors.

The American Army, fearing a Japanese invasion, gained permission under the War Relocation Authority to forcefully move 120,000 people to internment camps. Most of these prisoners were American citizens. Some were released after July of 1943 after proving their loyalty to the United States, but most were detained until December of 1944. The last camp closed in 1946. Over two centuries later, (through the " Reparations Bill" that was passed through Congress and signed into law by President Bush) the government issued $20,000 and a formal apology to each of the surviving WWII internees of all the camps. Read also about the National Japanese American Memorial in Hawaii that is being built in honor/memory of this tragic time in IS history. U.S. reaches agreement with Vietnam to allow political prisoners to emigrate to the U.S.

1988
AMERICAN HOMECOMING ACT
 

The U.S. Senate votes 69% to 27 to support redress for Japanese Americans. American Homecoming Act allows children in Vietnam born of American fathers to emigrate to the U.S.

1988
AMERICAN HOMECOMING ACT
 

The Friends of the Museum of Chinese American History is formed with representatives from El Pueblo, the Chinese Historical Society of Southern California and the local community.

1988
AMERICAN HOMECOMING ACT
 

On August 10, 1988, President Reagan signed a measure providing $20,000 payments to Japanese-Americans interned during World War II.

1989
COALITION OF ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICANS IS FOUNDED

The Coalition of Asian Pacific Americans was organized to: promote cooperation and understanding among people of Asian Pacific American descent and among their representative organizations; foster friendship among Americans of Asian Pacific descent and others in the community; promote, represent, and advocate the interests of Asian Pacific American communities; and promote education and awareness of Asian Pacific American heritage. Now in its 20th year, CAPA still celebrates the cultural richness and diversity of the Asian Pacific American community and its contributions to the community at large.

1989 
DAVID HENRY HWANG'S M.BUTTERFLY WINS A TONY AWARD

M. Butterfly, a thrilling drama of politics, gender and culture clashes between the East and the West, was Hwang's Broadway debut in 1988. It has been made into a
movie and is widely recognized as a masterpiece of theatre. Hwang grew up in Los Angeles during the late 60's and started to write down his family history when he was eleven. His family history is the source for his more recent play, Golden Child. Hwang now lives in New York with his wife and 10-month old son.

1989
JULIA CHANG BLOCH - 1ST ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICAN AMBASSADOR
 

Julia Chang Bloch's extensive international political career began with the Peace Corps in 1964 where she taught English as a second language in Manila. Some of her most important work came when she worked for the Agency for International Development (AID). At AID, she reviewed the Somalia refugee program and worked with the State Department. From 1989-1993 Bloch was appointed by George Bush to serve as the US Ambassador to Nepal where she oversaw Nepal's transition to democracy and initiated and directed the Democracy Program and Initiative in support of the consolidation of democracy in Nepal.

1989
ASIAN AMERICAN SPORT HERO - MICHAEL CHANG
 

On June 13, 1989 - Chinese American Michael Chang become the youngest male to win a Grand Slam (17 years, 3 1/2 months, a record that still stands) and the first American man in 34 years to win the French Open. The grueling five-set final against 3rd-ranked Stefan Edberg lasted 3 hours and 41 minutes. When it was over, Chang had pulled off the year's second biggest upset by a score of 6-1, 3-6, 4-6, 6-4, 6-2. Just a week earlier Chang had flabbergasted the tennis world by pulling off the biggest: a 5-set 4th-round win over top-ranked Ivan Lendl. Michael Chang's 1989 French Open exploits made him the first Asian American to attain the status of a global sports superstar. The Hoboken, New Jersey native began his pro career at the age of 15 and went on to win 34 ATP career titles with earnings totaling over $18 million before retiring on September 4, 2003.

1989
ANTI ASIAN AMERICAN VIOLENCE

Five Southeast Asian grammar school children are killed in a Stockton schoolyard. 300 Samoans march in Carson to protest the brutal beating of members of the Dole family by fifty Cerritos deputies. Thirty-five people were taken into custody and booked on "suspicion of unlawful assembly, failure to disperse and battery on peace officers".

1989
ANTI ASIAN AMERICAN LAWS

Vietnamese Fishermen's Association of America brought a suit to stop the Coast Guard from selective enforcement of the Jones Act which prohibits non-citizens from owning or operating large boats in US waters.

1989
SOUTHEAST ASIAN CHILDREN ARE KILLED BY WHITE GUNMAN!

Patrick Purdy fires 105 rounds from an assault rifle at students in an elementary schoolyard in Stockton, Calif. in January, killing five Southeast Asian children before shooting himself. Purdy reportedly blamed all minorities for his failings.

1989 
HATE CRIME SHOOTING!

Ming Hai Jim Loo, a Chinese American, is shot outside a pool hall in Raleigh, N.C. on July 29. His two white assailants, Lloyd and Robert Piche, allegedly shouted: We shouldn't put up with Vietnamese in our country. Robert Piche is sentenced to 37 years behind bars; Lloyd's sentence is 4 years.

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